Posted 23 Dec 2010 23:04
Frequent international trade payment settlement, the settlement of claims and liabilities between trade, this settlement as an international trade settlement. Settlement is the international trade transaction of goods based on two clear of money visible trade settlement. Settlement of the type of instrument used in international trade bills, including bills of exchange, promissory notes, checks to use the main draft. Bill is issued to another person a written unconditional payment order requiring the other party (the person receiving the command) or in the spot or on a regular basis to determine future time, to a person or nominee or to pay a certain amount of ticket bearer. Bill can be divided into the following categories: according to the different drawer bank drafts, commercial bills bank draft (banker's draft) is a drawer and drawee are the bank draft. Commercial bills of exchange (commercial draft) is a drawer for the enterprise legal person, company, firm or individual, the payment of other businesses human, personal or bank draft. With or without accompanying documents by votes light bill, light bill with a single vote (clena bill) bill does not in itself with the shipping documents, bank drafts, mostly light vote. With a single bill (documentary bill), also known as the credit bills of exchange, documentary bills bills of exchange, is the need with bills of lading, warehouse receipts, insurance documents, packing lists, commercial invoices and other documents in order to make a payment of ****, commercial bills, mostly with a single bill , often used in international trade. at the time of payment of sight draft, time draft sight draft (sight bill, demand bill) means the holder to the drawee immediately after the other payments, also known as the sight draft. Forward draft (time bill, usance bill) is a vote after a certain period or specific date of payment. In the long-term bill, the record date for a certain maturity, the payment at maturity, for regular draft, recorded in the ticket after a certain period of payment for the period for the draft; recorded in a fixed period after sight payment , and the note on the bill; be classified as several face amount and maturity date were specified for the installment bill. By acceptor firm acceptances, bank acceptances firm acceptance (commercial acceptance bill) is a bank of any firm or individual other than the long-term bill for the acceptor. Bank acceptance (banker's acceptance bill) is the bank's long-term bill acceptor. by geographical distribution of domestic draft, international money order. A promissory note is issued for a person to another, and to ensure that current or future time can be expected from their unconditional payment to the holder a certain amount of notes. Promissory notes can be divided into commercial paper and bank promissory notes. Commercial paper is issued by a commercial enterprise or individual promissory notes, also known as the general note. Commercial paper can be divided into immediate and long-term commercial paper rediscount conditions generally do not have, especially SMEs, and individuals out of the long-term promissory notes, due credit guarantee is not high, it is difficult to flow. Cashier is at sight. Settlement in international trade are mostly used in the cashier bank draft. Check drawn on a bank for the current draft. Specifically, the drawer (bank depositors) of the bank (the drawee) issued, requiring banks to the sight of immediate payment of the bills. Drawer checks should not arrive there in the paying bank deposits at face value. Such as insufficient funds, provided the holder liable to protest, this check is called empty promises. Dishonored checks in the drawer should bear legal responsibility. Checks can be divided into: secret drawer in the recipient field check is marked "paid to a person," "paid to a person or his designee." This checks the transfer circulation, endorsed by the holder, withdrawals shall be signed by the payee on the back. Bearer check, also known as blank check, payable to the column marked "paid to come." This check may be transferred without endorsement, withdrawals are not required to sign the back. Crossed check the check mark on the face of two parallel horizontal lines, such holder of a check can not withdraw cash, receivables accounted for only entrust the bank. Certified check in order to avoid the drawer empty promises, the payee or the holder may require payment on the check line with the "Guarantee" mark to ensure that the bank be sure to get payment. Outstanding check drawer or the holder on the check stated in general "transfer payments" to pay the bank for payment to be limited. Payment: credit settlement, remittance and collection method of payment, **** letter, the combined use of a variety of billing methods A, the credit settlement letter (letter of credit) referred to as the L / C) method is involved in bank credit international sales of goods the product payment settlement. It appears only in a certain degree of distrust between buyers and sellers to resolve conflicts, but also enable the two sides in the use of letter of credit money in the process of facilitating access to bank financing, thereby promoting international trade. Therefore, international trade is widely used among today's international trade so that it become a major method of settlement. Conditional letter of credit is the bank to make payment commitments, that is, the issuing bank under the applicant's request and instructions issued to the beneficiary a certain amount and within a certain period of payment by the stipulated documents are committed to the written document; or a bank in the required amount, date, and document conditions, the applicant is willing to purchase on behalf of beneficiaries of issuing a bill of exchange guarantee. Of bank credit, using the inverse exchange method. B, remittance and collection method of payment remittance and collection is commonly used in international trade payment settlement. a, Department of payment to pay, also known as remittances, is the payer through a bank, using a variety of payment clearing tool to intersect the recipient of a settlement. A commercial credit, it adopts exchange method. Remittance business involves four parties: the payer (remitter remmitter), the recipient (payee or beneficiary), the remitting bank (remittingbank) and Hui Ruxing (payingbank). Which the payer (usually the importer) and the Export Bank (commissioned by outward remittance of the Bank) under contract between the relationship between the Bank and the Hui Ruxing export (export line agency) relationship between the agency contract there. In the process of remittance business, you need to export line from the sender to submit transfer applications, the remitting bank obligated under the instructions of the remittance application form sent to the Hui Ruxing payment book; Huiru Hang attorney said after receiving the accounting, obliged to payee (usually the exporter) to pay the purchase price solution. But the remitting bank and the intermediary bank does not belong to their own fault for damages (such as payment orders lost or delayed in the mail on the way and so can not cause the recipient of receipt of payment or late) is not responsible for, and export of Hui Ruxing work is not liable for negligence. b, collection (collection) Collection of exports in goods have been shipped to the importer for the issuance of the remitter of the bill payer (attached or not to pay as the shipping documents), commissioned by Bank of exports to imports of the land through its branch or agency on behalf of the importer to receive payment of a settlement. A commercial credit, using the inverse exchange method. Collection methods are the principal parties, the remitting bank, collecting bank and the payer. Principal (principal), which means that the Bank commissioned a bill payer of the collection of money to foreign people, also known as the drawer (drawer), usually the exporter; the remitting bank (remitting bank) that is to accept the exporter commissioned on behalf of the export receivables to banks; the collecting bank (collecting bank), the collecting bank to accept the commission on behalf of the payer bank to receive payment of the importer; payer (payer or drawee), the payer bill collection of payments that the payer, usually the importer. The parties in between the client and the remitting bank, the remitting bank and collecting bank is among the principal-agent relationship between the payer and the collecting bank does not exist any legal relationship between the payer is based on trading contract payment. Therefore, the client can receive the money, completely good or bad depending on the reputation of the importer, the collecting bank and collecting bank shall not be liable. Business in the process of collection, the principal collection to the collecting bank to submit a power of attorney, power of attorney in the human a variety of directions, the remitting bank as well as the collecting bank in accordance with the instructions to the payer on behalf of the commission receive payment. C, **** letter of bank letter of guarantee (banker's letter of guarantee), abbreviated as L / G), also known as bank guarantees, bank guarantees, or short guarantee, it is the client application which banks should be open to the beneficiary a written certificate to ensure the applicant in accordance with the provisions of the contract, or the bank liable to pay debts. D, the combined use of a variety of settlement in international trade business, the payment settlement of a transaction, you can use only one method of payment (usually the case), but also necessary, for example, different trading commodities, different trading partners, different trading practices, the settlement of two or more combined with, or facilitate a transaction, or is conducive to safe and timely receipt, or conducive to properly handle the payment. Common use of different forms of settlement are: combination of letters of credit and remittance, credit and collection combination of remittance and **** or letter of credit with a, letter of credit and remittance deal with this is that the purchase price, some a letter of payment, remit the balance by way of settlement. The combination of this settlement to allow the delivery of the form commonly used in a certain number of mobile range of transactions of certain primary products. In this regard, by mutual agreement, the credit against shipping documents to give you the invoice value or the amount prepaid before shipment number into the balance to be goods to the destination (Hong Kong) or after the actual number of re-examination by way of remittance. With this combination of form, you must first specify what kind of letters of credit used and what kind of remittance methods and the ratio of the amount paid by letter of credit. b, letters of credit and the collection is a combination of these payment transactions, in part on a letter to pay the remaining balance settled with the collection. This combination approach is usually the specific form of: credit by the beneficiary (exporter) to open two drafts, are part of the payment under letters of credit by light ticket payment, and the balance will be attached to the collection of shipping documents under the bill, spot or forward by way of payment collection. This practice, more secure exchange earnings of the exporter, the importer can be reduced on the gold pad, easy to be accepted by both parties. But credit must specify the types of credit and payment amounts and types of collection methods must also provide "paid in full before it can pay a single invoice value" clause. c, remittance **** or letter of credit combined with the remittance and **** or letter of credit in the form commonly used in combination with complete sets of equipment, large machinery and large transportation vehicles (airplanes, ships, etc.), payment of the settlement. Such products, a large amount of the transaction, the production cycle large, often require the buyer to remit payment or deposit some way to advance, most of the remaining provisions of the purchase price by the buyer or open letters of credit increases by installments or deferred payment guarantee . In addition, remittance and collection combination of collection and standby letters of credit or bank guarantees and other forms of statement. We carry out foreign trade business, whether the choice was a combination of form, may be appropriate. Risk and paper notes, as an important international settlement of payment instruments, the international use of very extensive. Because a wide range of instruments, different nature, coupled with little contact with most of the domestic residents to foreign bills, lack of functional ability to identify, and thus the process of using the instrument, there are also many risks. First, note the risk A, the instrument of risk prevention, we should note the following: 1, before the trade transactions, we must understand the customer's credit, be aware of possible trouble. Especially for those who credit new customers and those of unknown foreign tensions, regional backwardness, volatile situation in the country physical customers. 2, the customers must be pre-submitted paper commissioned by Bank of Foreign verified to ensure secure exchange earnings. 3, the trade turnover of the former, both parties must sign and secure, equality and mutual benefit of the sales contract. 4, not receipt of the fare in the bank before the payment can not prevent premature delivery of two empty. 5, even the best credit received from the World Bank on-line check payment does not equal the future will receive the payment. In recent years, foreign unscrupulous traders and remittance documents with forged notes in the domestic fraud cases frequently occur, and the upward trend in the number of incidence, which can not be taken lightly. B, bills of exchange risk and prevent the use of the process in the draft, except to note that the above mentioned, we should also pay attention to follow the issue, acceptance, must comply with the principles of the bill: 1, the use of bills of exchange units must be corporate ****; 2, issue bills of exchange must be based on legitimate commodity trading, commodity trading ban issued a draft-free; 3, draft by the acceptance, the acceptor is unconditionally liable to pay the fare payer responsibility; 4, in addition to the bank bill discount, the allowed negotiable. (Note: This provision has been the subsequent break the bank balance sheet approach). C, how to identify genuine and fake promissory notes 1, true cashier system using special paper printing, paper, have certain security measures, and leave the cashier can only use the market plain paper printing, paper is poor, generally lower than the authentic tickets are printed on paper thin and soft. 2, printing ink formulations cashier is really confidential, fraudsters hard to get, therefore, can only be similar to the color of ink printed, so that the face color of fake cashier cashier contests have some differences. 3, the true number of promissory notes, font specification and tidy, and some fake cashier order number, order missing fonts, spacing evenly. 4, because it is illegal printing, signing off on the promissory note is also bound to fake signatures, with the signature does not match the Reserve Bank to master.